Their critical acclaim, as well as the latter's commercial success, paved the way for Indian neorealism  and the Indian New Wave. He was the most successful Indian actor for most of the s and s. Around that time, filmmakers and actors from the Bengali film industry based in Calcutta now Kolkata also began migrating to the Bombay film industry, which for decades after partition would be dominated by actors, filmmakers and musicians with origins in what is today Pakistani Punjab , along with those from Bengal. By the s, the industry was producing over films per annum. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late s. Mil Gaya , Munna Bhai M. These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class life in India , particularly urban life in the former two examples; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life. Ever since the social realist film Neecha Nagar won the Grand Prize at the first Cannes Film Festival ,  Hindi films were frequently in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival throughout the s and early s, with some of them winning major prizes at the festival. Indian filmmakers, while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films, used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films.
Around that time, filmmakers and actors from the Bengali film industry based in Calcutta now Kolkata also began migrating to the Bombay film industry, which for decades after partition would be dominated by actors, filmmakers and musicians with origins in what is today Pakistani Punjab , along with those from Bengal. On the other hand, Aamir Khan has been credited for redefining and modernizing the masala film which originated from his uncle Nasir Hussain's Yaadon Ki Baarat, which he first appeared in with his own distinct brand of socially conscious cinema in the early 21st century. He was the most successful Indian actor for most of the s and s. Kumar, who was described as "the ultimate method actor" by Satyajit Ray and is considered one of India's greatest actors, inspired future generations of Indian actors; much like Brando's influence on Robert De Niro and Al Pacino , Kumar had a similar influence on later Indian actors such as Amitabh Bachchan , Naseeruddin Shah , Shah Rukh Khan and Nawazuddin Siddiqui. Asif 's Mughal-e-Azam all tied at No. The three Khans have had successful careers since the late s,  and have dominated the Indian box office since the s,  across three decades. Prior to the partition of India , which was divided into the Republic of India and Pakistan , the Bombay film industry now called Bollywood was closely to the Lahore film industry now the Lollywood industry of Pakistani cinema , as both produced films in Hindi-Urdu , or Hindustani , the lingua franca across northern and central India. It combined the dacoit film conventions of Mother India and Gunga Jumna with that of Spaghetti Westerns , spawning the Dacoit Western genre also known as the " Curry Western " , which was popular in the s. Both these trends, the masala film and the violent crime film, are represented by the blockbuster Sholay , written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy stories and so on through song and dance. In the early 20th century, Urdu was the lingua franca of popular cultural performances across northern India, established in popular performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry , and Parsi theater. Their critical acclaim, as well as the latter's commercial success, paved the way for Indian neorealism  and the Indian New Wave. The movement emphasized social realism. In the s, many actors, filmmakers and musicians in the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry, including actors such as K. By the s, the industry was producing over films per annum. These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class life in India , particularly urban life in the former two examples; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life. Credit for the term has been claimed by several different people, including the lyricist, filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna,  and the journalist Bevinda Collaco. Some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. The critical and commercial success of Satya led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as Mumbai noir ,  urban films reflecting social problems in the city of Mumbai. These films were often not the subject of critical acclaim, but were nonetheless major commercial successes. The One Thousand and One Nights Arabian Nights also had a strong influence, on Parsi theater which performed " Persianate adventure-romances" that were adapted into films, and on early Bombay cinema where "Arabian Nights cinema" was a popular genre. Its blend of youthfulness, wholesome entertainment, emotional quotients and strong melodies lured family audiences back to the big screen. Ek Prem Katha , Lagaan , Koi Later the industry was dominated by musical romance films with "romantic hero" leads, the most popular being Rajesh Khanna. Kapoor and Kumar are among the greatest and most influential movie stars in the history of Indian cinema,   while Nargis is one of its greatest actresses. The term "Bollywood" itself has origins in the s, when India overtook the United States as the world's largest film producer.
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