It was frequent in ancient Greece; "unnatural" can be traced back to Plato. From the second half of the 13th century, death was the punishment for male homosexuality in most of Europe. Between and Karl Heinrich Ulrichs published a series of twelve tracts, which he collectively titled Research on the Riddle of Man-Manly Love. The research yielded information about women's general understanding of lesbian relationships and their sexual orientation. In both the Male and Female volumes of the Kinsey Reports , an additional grade, listed as "X", has been interpreted by scholars to indicate asexuality. Modern period See also: Also in , the earliest extended and serious defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplified, written by Thomas Cannon , was published, but was suppressed almost immediately.
This includes actions as simple as holding hands with or kissing another person. Unlike members of other minority groups e. The first phase is that of "knowing oneself", and the realization emerges that one is open to same-sex relations. The second phase involves one's decision to come out to others, e. Coming out Coming out of the closet is a phrase referring to one's disclosure of their sexual orientation or gender identity, and is described and experienced variously as a psychological process or journey. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the relationship between the main protagonist Gilgamesh and the character Enkidu has been seen by some to be homosexual in nature. This perspective is incomplete because sexual orientation is always defined in relational terms and necessarily involves relationships with other individuals. Many commentators oppose the practice altogether,  while some encourage outing public figures who use their positions of influence to harm other gay people. Julie Bindel , a UK journalist, reaffirmed that "political lesbianism continues to make intrinsic sense because it reinforces the idea that sexuality is a choice, and we are not destined to a particular fate because of our chromosomes. Sexual orientation identity and Sexual fluidity Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation. However, studies by J. Some scholars argue that there are examples of homosexual love in ancient literature, like in the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh as well as in the Biblical story of David and Jonathan. In Ancient Rome the young male body remained a focus of male sexual attention, but relationships were between older free men and slaves or freed youths who took the receptive role in sex. The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love sometimes requited, sometimes not for various females, but descriptions of physical acts between women are few and subject to debate. At this age, they may not trust or ask for help from others, especially when their orientation is not accepted in society. Homosexuality in China , known as the passions of the cut peach and various other euphemisms, has been recorded since approximately BCE. For example, it was thought that a typical female-bodied person who is attracted to female-bodied persons would have masculine attributes, and vice versa. Middle East Further information: Judaism and sexual orientation and Homosexuality in the bible In ancient Sumer , a set of priests known as gala worked in the temples of the goddess Inanna , where they performed elegies and lamentations. The adjectives deriving from her name and place of birth Sapphic and Lesbian came to be applied to female homosexuality beginning in the 19th century. This is the only major piece of research into female sexuality that has looked at how women understand being homosexual since Kinsey in The condemnation of anal sex between males, however, predates Christian belief. George Catlin — ; Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC Among indigenous peoples of the Americas prior to European colonization, a common form of same-sex sexuality centered around the figure of the Two-Spirit individual. Transgender and cisgender people may be attracted to men, women or both, although the prevalence of different sexual orientations is quite different in these two populations see sexual orientation of transwomen. Rather, one's sexual orientation defines the universe of persons with whom one is likely to find the satisfying and fulfilling relationships":
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